The automotive industry is growing due to a rise in demand, new markets coming into focus, the need for electric cars as well as an optimistic economic outlook. The growth of the automotive industry is important because it will also give rise to the production of parts that go into automobile manufacturers. These also include valves.
Automotive valves are specifically made valves for vehicles meant to control the flow of fuel, slurry, and other liquids. Based on the valves used in the vehicle, the performance and response time of the automobile are impacted. Many different kinds of valves are used for different functions in the automotive industry. The primary functions for which valves are used involve cooling, brakes, fuel regulation, and door locks.
Following are the six types of valves used in the automotive industry:
1. Poppet Valve
Poppet valves are used in the engine for the purpose of controlling the amount of gas flow into the engine. Poppet valves are also called mushroom valves because of their head and stem, which give the impression of a mushroom. The name poppet was given after the popping motion, which goes up and down. The valve is placed at a 30° to 45° angle to ensure perfect seating. The stem in this valve comes with a spring retainer lock groove. When used in the exhaust, the pressure built helps with the seal. As an intake valve, the pressure differential opens the valve seal.
2. Sleeve Valve
The sleeve valve gets its name for its shape. There is a tube that is supposed to fit between the cylinder wall and the piston of an internal combustion engine of an automobile. This tube rotates and/or slides to work. The sleeve has ports to the side that are meant to perfectly align with the exhaust ports as well as with the cylinder’s inlets. The sleeve ensures a continuous motion to make the gases come out due to the periodic motion.
These valves are excellent in their function as they are silent and easy to create by the valve manufacturer company. The silence of the valves while functioning comes from its no-noise-making parts that comprise rocker arms, tappets, and valve cams. These valves are also better choices because they have little chance of detonation. This valve also enables cooling through its constant contact with water jackets.
3. Rotary Valve
Rotary valves are not of a single type. Also called quarter-turn valves, the rotation on which these valves rely is sometimes limited to a 90-degree motion. Hence, the name quarter turn. But there are also rotary valves that have a wider degree of rotation. Such valves also have more than a couple of positions that are actively used in regular operation. Proper quarter-turn valves are completely open at 90 degrees and completely closed at 0 degrees.
The many types of rotary valves contribute towards the versatility of function. Rotary valves, by default, are easy to construct and are also less expensive than their counterparts for manufacturing. High-speed engines are often installed with rotary valves. With fewer vibrations and less stress, these valves guarantee better performance and do not cause excessive noise.
4. Butterfly Valves
Butterfly valves are a type of quarter-turn valves. The obstructor used in butterfly valves is disc-shaped, which sets it apart from the plug and ball valves. Resilient seated valves are ones that are general-duty butterfly valves. These types of valves consist of a single seal ring. This ring functions as a seal between the disc in the valve and the body. It is also a seal between the valve body and the pipe flanges.
The valve starts and stops at certain angles. The flow is stopped in the engine when the disc in the butterfly valve is perpendicular to the direction of the flow. On the other hand, when the disc comes parallel to the direction of the flow, the flow passes through the valve and moves around the disc. Butterfly valves are less bulky than plug and ball valves. These are used in large pipes where it does the work effectively without causing the machinery to become too heavy with the weight of the valve.
These valves are best suited for flow control as these effectively stop and start the flow of the fuel. In case one uses the manual actuator with the valve, the purpose of it should be to lock the disc into place so that it does not move with the force of the liquid. Manual butterfly valves mostly come with this feature.
5. Some types of Solenoid Valves
The operation of a solenoid valve includes a linear sliding obstructor. The purpose of this instructor is to restrict and permit the flow of fluid from one point to another. The obstructors used in solenoid valves are called spool, shuttle, plunger, and diaphragm. The linear sliding instructor is named so because of linear motion. The solenoid or an energised electromagnetic coil is used to control the direction of the linear obstructor.
Whenever the solenoid is energised, the obstructor moves one way, and the spring attached to the valves pulls the obstructor back in the original direction when the solenoid loses energy. Proportional solenoid valves are often used for flow control. Based on the need of the flow, the coil is supplied with different voltages to move the obstructor to a different distance.
The most widely known solenoid valves are the 2-position on/off valves, whereas three-position solenoid valves are also available that come with two solenoid coils. These valves use two solenoids for motion in opposite directions and a spring to get the obstructor back to the neutral position.
The size of the solenoid valves is small, and thus the power with which it can be effective is also limited as the number of coils determine the strength of the valve. The flow paths in solenoid valves are small, much like the orifices. This causes a pressure drop in the valve.
The automotive industry requires valves for their smooth functioning. The type of valves used in the automotive industry is chosen based on the bulkiness, effectiveness, cost, and functions.